Smartphone addiction: Part 1

Smartphone usage dangers if you are a depressed person

The concern for psychologists is the research indicating more and more that smartphone users who struggle with their mental health are more likely to exceedingly use their smartphone as a form of therapy. They are also tending to escape their emotional state and are less careful in smartphone usage and time spent and thus more likely they are to be addicted to their phones.
• The predisposition for addiction is because people who experience problems in their lives such as stress, anxiety, depression, family problems, are in the time they are emotionally unstable may seek relief in very excessive smartphone use.
• Challenge starts when they use smartphones in a specific passive way spending a lot of time on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, browsing , other peoples’ photos, comments of other peoples, and posts, and not posting anything of their own and not engaging in discussion.
• “Technoference” is a term referring to the everyday intrusions and interruptions that people experience due to mobile phones and their usage. Technoference researchers discovered a significant increase in people blaming their devices for “losing sleep, becoming less productive, taking more risks while driving and even getting more aches and pains.”
• Techoference impact would obviously aggravate symptoms of depression, stress, anxiety and related emotional challenges.
• The chemical reaction of the brain when using a smartphone is the same as cocaine: we get every time the screen lights up with an immediate new notification. It’s all thanks to dopamine which is the feel-good chemical that gets released every time you do something you enjoy. Dopamine reinforces and creates the repeating craving to experience the same feeling leading to behaviour that makes us feel good which in turn is how an addiction neuropath is laid.
It is therefore imperative that Psychologists include acceptable smartphone usage as an integral part of their therapy for the above mentioned patients. There is no sense in treating one problem which in turn could lead to more serious addictions.
Try the following digital detoxication tips.

  1. Be aware of the emotional state you are in when you use your phone
    • Don’t just go into autopilot, but consider why you pick up your smartphone:
    • Is it perhaps just a need to avoid a sense of boredom
    • Are you avoiding difficult emotions and busy to escape reality
    • Do you experience a feeling of being left out?
    • Do certain actions, like checking your email or social media, make you feel better or worse?
    • Awareness would assist you in preventing you to go into autopilot.
  2. Schedule your time to avoid smartphone addiction
    • Limit how many times you check your phone to once every 30 minutes schedule
    • Blocked out to times you use certain websites or apps
    • Do not use phones during meal time.
  3. Use your smartphone settings or one of the many apps available to increase your awareness of your data usage
    • Realizing exactly how much and for what you use data informing you how to use your smartphone
    • Try to use apps reporting overuse or enable you to set limits on data to be used.
  4. Recharge your phone in another room.
    Perhaps limiting your phone use during the day sounds too impractical. When charging your smartphone in a different room is a way to reconnect with body, mind, and self and not be in constant state of overstimulation of the mind. When you charge your smartphone in the room where you sleep you are subconsciously “awake” and “aware” of the smartphone being charged you do not really get to full REM sleep.



Hypnosis is a very powerful tool for promoting healing, growth and transformation. It works by activating a creative state of mind and body where new learning can occur effectively, almost effortlessly. It can help you with the knowledge and energy you need to succeed in life, helping to build new beliefs and to focus your attention. If we can heal our beliefs, our beliefs can heal us.

Hypnotherapy is generally associated with entertainment on entertainment or TV and amusement which unfortunately portrays a delusion of what hypnosis really is. As a start it creates the impression the hypnoartist has control over the person on entertainment and could let the person perform whatever he anticipates they would enjoy doing or performing. Nothing regarding hypnosis could be further from the truth. Let us look in more detail what hypnoses are and is not.

What is hypnosis for entertainment purposes?

  • Firstly the entertaining hypnotist will never take the responsibility to call out participants when the show begins. He would ask for any volunteers to come up to the stage. This modus operandi by the entertainer is a dead giveaway that he is busy with manipulation of participants. Everybody knows he is going to make fun of you. The fact that you are willing to do volunteer, says that because you want to, he will be able to do it. If you are not willing, the hypnotherapist will not be able to hypnotise you and his show will fail.
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  • In addition if you observe carefully what they do on TV is for them to exchange a few words with them. This is to establish whether there is a relationship or not. If he discovers that you don’t like or trust him, or vice versa, you will be sent back to the audience. The same will apply if you are overly critical of him.
  • Now the moment of truth! He snaps his fingers and says: Sleep. And they go to “sleep”! As you will read further on what hypnoses is not you will then realise it is not sleep. The only way he can snap his fingers and they are hypnotised is because he actually has hypnotized them before.
  • This means the entertainment hypnotist is familiar with his subjects and thus knows who will be willing to cooperate in his show.
  • As mentioned earlier: hypnosis is a state of mind power. For instance – you are on entertainment, and the hypnotist suggests to you to dance like a ballerina. You will first check with your internal moral system whether it is okay for you to do that or not. If it is acceptable, you can use your mind-power to remember for instance a TV show where you have seen a ballerina dancing. You will be able to recall the moves, and you will be able to perform them accordingly. You can even use mind power to dance on the tips of your toes and to imagine a steel bar from the tips of your toes to your legs. But if the hypnotist suggests something that is against your principles, you will come out of hypnosis, because you are in control all the time.
  • When he is finished, he will “wake you up”. As you will read further down you will understand that you would always come out of hypnosis and remember afterwards what happened.

To explain what hypnosis really is, we need to understand what hypnosis is NOT.

2. What hypnosis is not

Persons in hypnosis are not asleep

  • The word hypnosis is derived from the Greek word “Hypnos”, the god of sleep. Nothing is further from the truth. Hypnosis is everything but sleep.

Anyone in a state of hypnosis is constantly AWARE of themselves and their environment. The person does not lose consciousness for a single moment, although in a deep trance, noises and disturbances in their environment will seem to be so remote from them that it will not bother them, as long as they don’t pose a threat. When something threatening happens, the person will then simply wake up, in order to take the necessary steps to secure themselves.

Hypnosis is not like sleep

  • Studies have shown that hypnosis and sleep differ. Studies of brain activity have shown that although there are characteristic patterns of brain activity associated with sleep, the same is not true for hypnosis. To observers, hypnosis might appear to be like sleep because suggestions of relaxation are commonly given as part of a hypnotic routine, but hypnotised people are in a state more similar to wakefulness.
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Hypnosis is not dangerous

  • The hypnotic state is no more dangerous than the sleep state, and on the whole, there are no dangers when practised by ethical and qualified practitioners.
  • If hypnosis was dangerous, we would have to tell ourselves not to slip into another state of consciousness, not to daydream, not to concentrate deeply, not to be completely compelled and absorbed by certain topics.

In contrast consider going to a hairdresser as one of the most dangerous experiences there can ever be unlike hypnosis. The hairdresser is working with a dangerous weapon, a pair of scissors, close to your neck. One stab could end your life! Then never go to a hairdresser again!

Hypnosis is not similar to anaesthesia

  • The hypnotised subject is aware of sounds, touch, smells, taste and visual input. They are even able to speak while in hypnosis. They will always be able to awake from a trance. They cannot remain in a permanent trance. All they need to decide on is to wake up, and once this decision has been made, the hypnotized person will wake up.

Hypnosis is not a question and answer session

  • This is the biggest misconception. People want to know what the therapist is going to ask them while hypnotized. He or she is not going to ask you anything. He or she will ask in the clinical interview everything they want to know about you. Hypnosis is used as therapy where they leave suggestions or will ask you to perform certain actions in your mind, without having to tell them anything about it.
  • The only time they might ask questions, is when you need to recall information you may not remember – whether it be events that happened long ago which they can’t remember and need to remember.
  • It is a powerful tool, but it should be practised ethically.

Hypnosis is not the work of the devil

  • As everyone on earth has experienced trance in the form of daydreaming, it is a natural God-given talent, which can be used positively in the person’s interest. Like anything else, untrained charlatans can also abuse hypnosis.
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  • Some people think that you are vulnerable to the devil/evil when you are hypnotized. This is just not possible. The Scriptures teach us that God protects us at all times. How can the devil ever be stronger than God?

“Weak people” are not the most susceptible to hypnosis

  • On the contrary, strong-willed, intelligent and creative people are better subjects than “weak-willed” people. There is a misconception that only the weak ones are able to be hypnotised and that a hypnotherapist has therefore unlimited control over that person, while in fact, the hypnotised person is always in control. He (or she) will decide to allow it, or not. They will even decide how deep into a trance they will go and at no time is the person ever under the control of the hypnotist. The person is in control of the session and of themselves and therefore more in control of themselves than otherwise.

People who are in a hypnotic trance will not reveal secrets or say things they will regret

  • The person in trance always remains in full control. When you see “hypnosis shows” on television and audience members are jumping on the entertainment clucking like chickens – remember that they volunteered to do that in full knowledge that they would be expected to do something “crazy”. Sometimes hypnotherapy is used for the purposes of revealing repressed memories or information. Persons undergoing hypnosis for those reasons choose to go into a deeper trance state than usual. They are actively seeking to reveal the repressed information. A hypnotherapist cannot make someone reveal any information if they don’t want to.
  • You may begin to realize that hypnosis is actually a state of mind power. If you want to tell a lie you would be able to lie very well when hypnotised,

You cannot be hypnotised against your will.

  • All hypnosis is actually self-hypnosis. You have to want to be hypnotised before a trance state can be achieved. There are methods for inducing a trance (deep relaxation) when working with resistant subjects; however, none of these methods will be effective unless you want to be hypnotised.
  • This is very important. The hypnotist cannot hypnotise you. The hypnotherapist can only assist you in hypnotising yourself. To get hypnotised is the ability of the client, not the ability of the hypnotist.
  • You can’t be forced to do anything you don’t want to do in hypnosis. You retain power over your ability to act upon suggestions, although if you do allow yourself to act upon a suggestion you may feel as though the effects are happening spontaneously.
  • No hypnotist can compel you to do anything in violation of your moral or ethical code.

You cannot get ‘stuck’ in hypnosis

  • There is no evidence that anybody can become stuck in hypnosis. The worst that might happen could be that you may fall asleep – and wake up unhypnotised! Studies have been conducted where participants have been hypnotised, and the hypnotist then leaves the room under the pretence that there is a problem he has to attend to. The participant is then observed (without their knowledge) to see what happens. The result in all cases was that participants spontaneously woke up.
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You will not remember anything afterwards

  • You will remember everything afterwards because you are awake and alert. Some people don’t remember certain things, simply because their minds strayed during the trance. And that is okay because we are addressing the subconscious mind, not the conscious. You are free to let your thoughts wander as we go. Some people even fall asleep, and there is nothing wrong with that either.
  • It seldom happens, but occasionally clients have no recollection of what had happened. Sometimes it might be so traumatic that the subconscious may choose for you to forget. When this happens, clients never ask the therapist what happened because they don’t want to know.
  • It has nothing to do with being in a deep trance. Deep trances are not required. Anything can be done in a mild trance.

Nothing is going to be revealed

  • Many people are scared about what may surface whilst hypnotized. First of all: the days of going back to the past and reliving the trauma are over. Nowadays we have techniques of dealing with trauma without having to re-traumatise the client by making him or her relive the experience. As you have already experienced the trauma in real life, this time you will only see it as a memory, and as you are older, wiser, more experienced, and you are not alone, it will never be as bad as it was in real life.

3. What hypnosis really is?

  • Have you ever driven a long distance and, after arriving, thought,“How did I get here?” Have you ever watched a movie without even hearing someone talking behind you? Are you aware of background sounds right now if you do not concentrate on it? That is hypnosis!
  • Broadly speaking, hypnosis is a state of altered consciousness that occurs normally in every person just before falling asleep. That is why hypnosis is usually accompanied by relaxation, simulating the relaxed position of the body during sleep. In therapeutic work, we prolong this brief interlude, so that we can work within its bounds.
  • In short: after our first hypnosis session, you are not going to believe that you were hypnotised at all. Clients always tell me: “but I don’t think that I was hypnotised. I was aware of everything all the time, I could hear your voice all the time, and I heard the noises in and outside the building all the time. I was not “under”. That is hypnosis. You will be aware of everything. It is true, however, that the more hypnosis sessions we have, the deeper you will experience your trance state.
  • Hypnosis is nothing but just a deep state of relaxation causing a state of mind power. Nothing more, nothing less. If you understand this, you understand hypnosis! You will not believe that you were hypnotised at all!
  • One of the best examples of hypnosis is the following: have you ever been in a church, and the reverend or pastor or minister was praying? And the prayer is “boring”. You are sitting there with your eyes shut and thinking of anything and everything except the prayer, and sometimes you even fall asleep! But you will always hear the word “Amen” loud and clear. You were in a hypnotic trance! You were not falling asleep (I hope), yet you missed every word. But you did not miss the “Amen”. It is called a conditioned response. “Amen” in the subconscious means he is finished; you can open your eyes. Yet your subconscious registered everything and was in close communication with God.
  • Hypnosis, also referred to as hypnotherapy or hypnotic suggestion is a trance-like state of mind. It is usually achieved with the help of a hypnotherapist and is different from your everyday awareness.

During hypnosis your attention is more focused.

  1. You’re deeply relaxed and calm.
  2. You’re more open to suggestions and less critical or disbelieving.
  3. The purpose of hypnosis is to help you gain more control over your behaviour, emotions or physical well-being.
  4. I prefer to refer to hypnosis as a relationship of trust. If there is trust, virtually anything is possible. If there is no trust, hypnosis will not be successful.
  5. It’s not clear how hypnosis works. Hypnotherapists say that hypnosis creates a state of deep relaxation and quietens the mind. When you’re hypnotised, you can concentrate intensely on a specific thought, memory, feeling or sensation while blocking out distractions. You’re more open than usual to suggestions and this can be used to change your behaviour and thereby improve your health and well-being.

4. Let us look at what you will experience during the first few hypnotherapy sessions.

The first session

A typical first session lasts 45-55 minutes during which therapist will go over history, gain an in-depth understanding of the issue and attempt to understand why this struggle started. Much of the first session will focus on reasons why certain behaviors, struggles or patterns persist so that the therapist can determine whether hypnosis, or possible other therapy techniques or a combination of therapies should be utilized to best address this issues. Once the issue is sufficiently explored a hypnotic trance induction would be conducted when it is mutually decided that this is the best course of treatment. Before starting the hypnotic induction, the therapist will discuss how hypnosis will be used in the session and give the client the opportunity to discuss any questions the client may have about the use of hypnosis or the process. Only when the client and therapist have discussed the clients concerns at length, the therapist will start the hypnotic induction. The type of hypnosis practiced includes the use of deep relaxation techniques and metaphors aimed at helping the client tap into their internal resources in order to make the changes that they would like to address. In addition to the verbal use of the therapist voice I use in my practise “Light and Sound” to facilitate the induction phase of hypnosis and therapy.

The second session

  • Usually, hypnosis will be initiated during this session. Since you are the one determining the course of therapy, it might happen that there are more issues that you would like to discuss and hypnosis might not be a possibility yet. Bear in mind that at least half an hour is needed for hypnosis. When we actually do start with hypnosis, there is a possibility that not much might happen initially, due to the following reasons:
  • You will not initially go into a deep trance or a trance at all. Anyone will resist something they are not familiar with, which is good because it is natural to be wary of the unknown.
  • Anxious clients might find it especially difficult to relax, since the harder they try, the harder it gets. Imagine a sleepless night. The harder you fight the sleeplessness, the more difficult it becomes. The moment you stop trying, it will come naturally. This is also the case with hypnosis.
  • You will realize that you don’t have to think, concentrate or even co-operate. Everything happens spontaneously. You can let your thoughts wander. Imagine listening to a boring speech, lost in your own thoughts. You might even fall asleep. The subconscious mind always receives the messages, without you even being aware of it.
  • After a session of hypnosis, you will go home, thinking that nothing had changed. As time progresses you will start noticing the subtle changes in your relationships and in your daily life. Only then will you realize the power of the subconscious. Others will probably become aware of these changes, even before you do.

You will realize:

  1. You can only be hypnotized if you allow it. If you don’t want to be hypnotized, it can never happen.
  2. Hypnosis is defined as a relationship of trust. If there is trust, you are halfway there. If there is any lack of trust, the issue should be addressed. This is necessary and to your benefit.
  3. Anyone can be hypnotized. There is no such thing as a person who cannot be. Self-hypnosis occurs on a daily basis without you even being aware of it.
  4. Your mind is your tool. Your therapist is merely the key that unlocks your subconscious. You already possess everything necessary to fulfil your every desire.

The third session and what follows

  • Only during the third or fourth session will you start experiencing a deeper level of trance. Now you have surpassed the novelty and your own resistance and now we can really start working on your problem. You will sometimes go into a deep trance and sometimes not. The depth of your trance is however not significant. Your subconscious is doing all the work automatically.
  • From this moment on, we can work fast and effectively.

5. The holistic Integrative process

On completion of the first session the client and therapist decide together on the best way to work together to make sure that the client achieves the goals the client and therapist agreed to. Generally short-term hypnosis is best for singular struggles such as smoking cessation or simple habits and usually takes between one to five sessions. Ongoing integrative therapy combined with hypnosis is best for issues such as anxiety, depression, insomnia, trauma, eating disorders, drug and alcohol addictions, social media dependency and struggles that involve more than one issue. For this, the client and therapist develop an ongoing therapeutic relationship where appointments can be set up weekly or biweekly at the same time or flexibly according to the client’s schedule. We combine the use of hypnosis and mindfulness with therapy various techniques given most people’s difficulties are intricate, interconnected, and complex. A person may want to lose weight, but this is complicated by their reward system to spoil themselves to eat something when they had an achievement. They might want to quit smoking, but find themselves compelled to do so because of ongoing anxiety or low self-esteem for the above reason hypnotherapists attempt to work in a way that is flexible and organic, striking a balance between deep analytic work to get to the root of the problems, while using hypnosis for specific changes along the way.

My years of working in a school system have equipped me to deal with learning and emotional problems in children.

6. Hypnosis is effectively used for the following:

    1. An effective therapeutic tool which may be utilized by practitioners of ALL health care disciplines as an adjunct treatment method.
    2. A therapy used by psychotherapists of all methodological schools to aid in the treatment of a variety of psychological and physical complaints.
    3. A means of focusing on a client’s strengths and utilizing inner resources to effect change.

The efficacy of hypnosis has been demonstrated for the treatment of many disorders. Among them are:

  • Addictions and Substance Abuse – alcohol, legal and illegal drugs: heroin, cocaine, amphetamines, percocet, etc.
  • Anxiety Disorders – panic with and without agoraphobia, performance, social phobias, specific phobias, test anxiety and travel anxiety, to name just a few.
  • Eating Disorders and Weight Management – anorexia, bulimia, binge eating, complex disorders, over-indulgence, emotional eating.
  • Habit Modification – (a) Annoying Habits: nail biting, hair-pulling (trichotillomania), teeth grinding (bruxism), etc. (b) Smoking Cessation: for some people hypnosis may be an effective sole agent; for others hypnosis may be part of a program used to assist in smoking cessation.
  • Loss and Grief – death of a loved one, separation, divorce, loss of mental and/or physical capacities.
  • Mood Disorders – depression, dysthymia, bipolar etc.
  • Pain Management – back pain, cancer pain, dental pain, tension headaches, migraines, arthritis, rheumatism, tinnitus, injuries from motor vehicle accidents, pre-during-post-surgery.
  • Performance Enhancement: Sports, Entertainment, and Public Speaking – hypnosis has been found to be effective for improving performance by optimizing concentration, alertness, and flexibility in the modification and incorporation of new techniques.
  • Relationship Issues – couples, parent-child, and family therapy, co-workers and friends issues.
  • Trauma – Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), sexual and physical abuse, serious neglect, accident, illness, and surgery traumas.

Anxiety and stress – Hypnosis seems to be extremely successful with a Cognitive Behavioural Approach in treating all forms of anxiety and especially panic attacks. Hypnosis is also proven to be successful in overcoming almost any phobia, obsessive compulsive disorder or excessive fear such as entertainment fright.

Depression – Depression is called “anger without enthusiasm”, and once this anger is dealt with together with cognitive restructuring, the depression seems to ease a great deal.

Smoking – Great success has been achieved with quitting smoking. If a person is not serious about quitting, the success rate is considerably lower. Please read my article on smoking on my website before you make an appointment.

Academic/athletic/sports performance – The client is taught self-hypnosis (hypno-training), which helps with concentration, anxiety, comprehension, motivation and retention. If there is any negative memory or perception preventing the client from optimal performance these areas will be addressed first.

Memory recovery – It is often necessary to uncover where the problem originated. People can remember things that happened before they were born and even remember what happened when they were unconscious.

Psycho Neuro Immunology (PNI) – PNI is an exciting new field in the world of hypnosis. In short, it means that any medical disorder may have an underlying psychological root. By treating the disorder with hypnosis, the general practitioner can be assisted in healing the problem or disorder. Success is recorded with especially dermatological, auto-immune disorders, cancer, pain and many other.

Sleep disorders – Since hypnosis is a state of deep relaxation, it is very helpful in assisting those with sleep disorders, provided that any trauma that is causing the sleep disorder is dealt with first.

Sexual dysfunction and relationship disorders:.- Hypnosis can be helpful with sexual problems like frigidity, sexual trauma, impotence and premature ejaculation. It can also assist those with relationship problems, for instance, trust.

Spiritual problems – Hypnosis can also help to put the client more in touch with God or the “Higher Power”, and the Inner Wisdom to help them on their life path. Sometimes many psychological problems have a spiritual root, and it is necessary to address spiritual issues here. Feelings of guilt and feelings of having done something wrong are seen by many psychologists as being at the core of all psychological problems.

The above-mentioned areas of hypnosis are just the tip of the iceberg. Hypnosis is literally the key that can unlock any door you wish. The only limit of hypnosis is the limits you choose to set yourself.


  • Hypnosis is an unconscious process. In most cases, people aren’t even aware that they were hypnotized.

You don’t have to do anything whatsoever. The subconscious mind does everything for you. Like new software installed in a computer being programmed to identify the new software, choose the drive to download it and then have it installed. The subconscious mind through hypnoses inherently knows what is best for you and what to secure where and how

Hypnosis (Colourbox)

What is the impact on the community of the matric boy in Pretoria who committed suicide ?

The sad and shocking news of the suicide of a Pretoria Matric boy reached the community of Pretoria East on 24 July 2019.  Since then a month has gone by giving me time to reflect and observe as a psychologist how the incident unfolded.

As expected it was immediately reported that clergymen and psychologists were providing counselling to pupils of the school and all involved dealt professionally and admirably with the situation.

My focus is not on the causes, prevention or alarming rate of suicide as the second leading – and fastest growing – cause of death between the 15-24 age group. My focus is how it extended to the Menlopark community. Should the reader is interested in how to support and curb teenage suicide I recommend they read more on the webpage of South African Depression And Anxiety Group (  You will find valuable information and emergency lines on the webpage.

As stated above my focus is to reflect on the effect of suicide on the community.  It is estimated that 115 people are exposed to a single suicide according to a 2016 study, ”Exposure to Suicide in the Community: Prevalence and Correlates in One U.S. State, report in June 2016 by Cerel J , Maple M, Van de Venne J, Moore M, Flaherty C and Brown M.  Of the 115 community people exposed to the suicide, one in five reported that the experience had a devastating impact on him/her or caused a major-life disruption.  The implication is that it had a major impact on an estimated 23 community members. The reality is it could be any member and most probably it is a person not considered as very close to the deceased

Important to realise is that exposure to suicide has an impact beyond family. This hidden cohort of suicide-exposed people is at elevated risk for psychopathology and suicidal ideation.  In my case the news triggered my own experience some years ago as a psychologist in Pretoria where I served on a multi disciplinary panel working with suicidal patients where one of the senior physicians of the panel unexpectedly committed suicide.  I can still remember my guilt feelings, awareness of my lack of experience and shock for not being able to prevent the suicide.  One can imagine the impact her suicide had on the suicidal patients she supported or helped before. Therefore the unfortunate suicide of the young Pretoria East scholar impacted on me as one of the 23 community members.  Who are the other 22 and how seriously did the incident elevated their experiences?  Fortunately I had therapy and became more knowledgeable regarding suicide, how to cope with the effect of it and the signals and causes of suicide.  What support did the other 22 community members asked for or received?  The purpose of my question is not to blame or shame but to emphasise the reality that even in this case there are unknown exposed community members. Some of these community members may feel the impact in a way that feels similar to those closest to the person who had died. In a situation where the individual who committed suicide has struggled openly with mental health concerns, those who knew of the struggle will feel the pain of the loss and would most likely wonder if they could have done more. Community members who may not even have personally known the individual who died experiencing the same intensity of emotions as the close family

Since the time since the incident I am aware of a young person felt traumatised and started to struggle.  Typically this teen did not ask for counselling when it was offered.  This is not exceptional for teens not to expose themselves and this phenomenon is complicated. Just as complicated as the phenomenon that 75% of young people who know that a peer is suicidal will not seek help from an adult.  The challenge is to have sustainable networks to identify these members in order to support them.

Now that we know one incident impacts on a larger community and have an elevated risk on 1 in 5 people the question is what can be done.

Firstly we need to work on decreasing the stigma because one of the major negative sides of stigma is that it only leads to silence. Silence about a suicide loss does leave people feeling isolated, as if they are facing this tragedy alone. When someone dies by suicide, the aftermath opens up an immediate opportunity to talk about suicide at a personal level. How you feel, the emotions evoked in you, what you think and feel. This opportunity should be recognised and longer term forums, platforms or organisations should be put in place to be available long after the incident. The impact of a death by suicide becomes confusing as the grapevine usually distorts actual facts.  Communicating and sharing the actual facts of the suicidal circumstances and history usually serve to start the healing process for the close members and community members.  It also serves to prevent the destructive myths of suicide.

To decrease the stigma is also the responsibility of public health as it affects all of us and it is in this arena that organisations such as the South African Depression And Anxiety Group where they contribute in a commendable way. The establishment of community groups such as faith communities are in the position to convene forums for people to come together to mourn and receive support.  Peer support from people who have lost a loved one to suicide proved to be very healing.  It is very encouraging and healing to know you are not alone and to connect with others who have also experienced suicide loss.

Decreasing the stigma, organising support groups, and paying attention to a suicidal death in a community increases our collective awareness of suicide as a problem and highlights suicide prevention as a need.

It is common to find valuable sustained forums and support groups established by a community who was exposed to such a suicide incident with the aim to prevent suicide or to support others experiencing suicide incidents.

I trust that this information would sensitise all involved in suicide of the impact one incident has on the family but especially the unknown community members.  Who knows what sustainable initiatives might evolve within the specific Pretoria East Community originating from the unfortunate death of this remarkable young scholar to help others in the community and beyond in future?

Wim Slabbert (Psychologist Menlopark).


BrainWorking Recursive Therapy® – BWRT® – was created in 2012 by Terence Watts, a therapist, author of many books and training courses and principal of the Essex Institute in Essex, UK. 

What is BrainWorking Recursive® Therapy

BrainWorking Recursive®Therapy is an innovative new concept of psychotherapy; completely unlike anything that has been done before it. It presents an entirely new view of the subconscious mind. It is unique and inspired by the research of Benjamin Libet. In 1983 Benjamin Libet (2003 winner of the Virtual Nobel Prize in Psychology from the University of Klagenfurt), Professor at University of California ran a series of experiments that proved that we do not have free will in the way we think of it, which is precisely why we all encounter so many “Why on earth did I do/say that?” or “Why do I have to feel like this?” moments.

What is BWRT?

BWRT was created by Terence Watt, a therapist for more than 30 years who applied hypnotherapy, as well as Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and Emotional Freedom Technique, amongst other therapies, but he always thought the therapies fell short of something. He realised to really hardwire a new way of thinking, most therapies require repeated sessions and activities that the patient needs to keep doing for them to be effective. Watt always thought that existing therapies fall short of something.

The brain is an amazing organ, computing a stream of input from all your senses, while referencing memories and automatically making decisions as you go about your day, trying to make sense of everything it hears and sees. Terence Watts argued there’s no such thing as free will in the typical sense and for many of our thoughts, behaviours and habits, there’s a response to a situation or emotion formed before you even realise.

How does Brain Working Recursive Therapy® work?

BWRT® enables you to create a different neural pathway response – in other words a different mental reaction – before you react to something. ‘The change can be so natural that the client doesn’t even notice the subtle switch.

BWRT® has been designed to remove emotive responses from memories that are deeply troubling and create new, adaptive neural pathways that do not have the old undesirable emotional responses attached to it.  The therapy extends the neural pathways so that the client/patient’s brain knows the new patterns to use in future. Every new experience creates a new template. In fact, immediately after the therapy is finished, the client no longer feel any negative responses to the usual trigger for their presenting symptom, no matter how hard they try to ‘fire it up’.

Your lizard brain controls ‘fight or flight’

These automatic responses come from your limbic cortex, otherwise known as your ‘lizard brain’ called like this, because way back at the start of evolution it was one of the first parts of the brain to form.

The lizard brain controls things that don’t require conscious thought, such as breathing, perspiration, organ function and the hormone system. It also controls our fight-or-flight mode, which is the physical and emotional response we feel when confronted with something your brain perceives as stressful or dangerous. This means some negative, automatic actions or reactions – such as a fear of flying, or reaching for a sugary snack if you feel low, could emanate from misinterpreted or outdated information that our brain has stored from a past situation. The information doesn’t have to be the distant past. As ones situation changes in life such as your kids moving away, you retire or it could be something bigger like a health change it can subconsciously affect you.

You might find yourself suddenly devoid of a plan, or lacking focus or confidence. Your lizard brain learns patterns associated with these feelings, such as a release of the stress hormone cortisol and you feeling the jitters when you go to sign up for that new fitness class. It will automatically continue that reaction each time the issue comes up, without you even stopping to realise that’s what is going on.

The amazing thing is, your lizard brain doesn’t differentiate between reality and imagination and the new insight is that the reaction can be “recorded over”,

Once the brain has created an automatic response pattern to specific emotions, it can become so automatic that it would be really difficult not to do them. We do not consciously think of it but when we experience from, underlying guilt, panic attacks, anger outbursts and depression. The reaction happens in the same way.  Before we can think, we do something that we’d rather not, or that prevents us from doing something we wanted to do. This is exactly where using BWRT a therapist can help you break that loop so that you can start to do the thing you want to do, instead of what you don’t want to do, but can’t help doing or feeling.

The name for the process that takes place is ‘preconscious,’ ‘subconscious’ or ‘unconscious’ and all has to do with the speed of the nerve paths in the brain being much faster than we can consciously think.  The process is all about speed you do not control or problematic reactions called instincts or reflexes.  These are done by the brain in a split second choosing what action to take and start to trigger it.  What actually happens when you have panic attacks, anxiety, road rage or guilt feelings is that the brain reacts in the way it has somehow learnt fits with whatever is going on. It doesn’t matter what you consciously want, because by the time you actually starts to think about it, the speedy part of your brain has already made up its mind, and that’s why it is so difficult to deal with these kinds of problems on your own.

What happens in a BWRT® session?

If you’ve had any kind of counselling or therapy you will know that it can sometimes be frustrating, awkward, or even traumatic, as your brain mulls over problems, past and present. But with Brain Working Recursive Therapy®, you don’t even need to discuss the cause or root of the problem, making the concept of treating it feel a lot more comfortable.

In a BWRT® session, which usually takes around an hour, the therapist will ask you to target the thing you don’t like about how you are behaving and feeling, and ask you to focus on how you would rather behave and feel.

Essentially you freeze the response before it goes past your lizard brain – just before the action (behaviour) or emotion (feeling) form. This is how it differs from therapies such as CBT, which looks to change your response or reaction once the troubling emotion has already formed. The new response pattern is inserted into the brain in the ‘Freeze’ moment of a traumatic memory. If no new information is given, the old software will just start running again. In BWRT® the exact moment of the original traumatic event was frozen again is now used to re-freeze the exact moment of creating a specific set of important circumstances in the limbic system. We recreate what often happens during a moment of trauma that is ‘Freeze’ and at that exact moment when the previous neuropath started we insert the new software, thus creating a new neuropath while the brain while waiting for further information. We have a fixed point that we can link forward to the present and hence to a fixed future point. This allows us to create a huge recursive loop that spans only 1/5th of a second in ‘Brain Time’ but several weeks, months, or even years in chronological time. What we are essentially doing, is storing new software in the pattern recognition matrix. We’re uploading a new preferred response in the preconscious part of the brain. In essence, we’re over-writing the bad software with better software. We also imagine and install a better future memory. Using particular techniques to lock it into place, we create a memory of something that hasn’t happened yet, but you will remember it as if it has already happened. This is possible because your brain creates new nerve pathways every time you think of something. Indeed, the brain is a river, not a rock. As much as 70% of your synaptic connections change each day. BWRT® zooms in on and changes those synaptic connections that you want to change.

What we are essentially doing, is storing new software in the pattern recognition matrix. We’re uploading a new preferred response in the preconscious part of the brain. To change unwanted automatic reactions, all we have to do is get as far back along that signal path as possible so that we can persuade your brain that a new behaviour is more suitable than the old one. The term neuroplasticity refers to the lifelong ability of the brain to reorganize neural pathways based on new experience. New Experience   Old experience   Freeze moment  

‘In essence it is a natural and practical form of therapy, and the best thing is, the change comes completely from within you’ says Terence Watts.

The neuroscience behind BWRT®

According to research there are at least ten billion neurons in the human brain, which by seven years of age is almost fully grown and thereafter its complexity is the result not of the growth of more cells but of connections between cells. There are between ten trillion and one hundred trillion such connections.

Each neuron may be linked to an electric generator. Some neurons are running constantly while others fire intermittently as they receive messages from other neurons. Each of the nerve cells produces about 20 millivolts of power. Information is coded by the frequency of the impulses. It is this electricity that we see on electroencephalographic tracings.  The sending wire of one cell does not touch the receiving wires of other cells. They lie on the other skit of a chasm that is a millionth of an inch wide. The message must “jump” the gap, called the Synapse. The next cell repeats the process. Brain messages can perform this “leap” 500 to 1 000 times per second but the average speed or frequency of firing is 100 times per second.

The neuron consists of three parts: cell body, which contains the nucleus;dendrites, which form the branches or “receiving wires” that picks up messages from other neurons; andaxon, or “sending wire” through which messages are passed on after being evaluated by the nucleus.  

There is no actual electrical connection or any passage of electric current between one neuron and the next. The sending wire of the cell ends in little protein vesicles called boutons. The actual transmission of the message across the synapse is a chemical reaction. Chemicals produced by boutons “squirt” the message across, like popcorn being able to pop and hop when heated. When an action is repeated, stimulating cells at frequent intervals, boutons at the synapse increase both in size and number, shortening the span over which the message must jump. The more boutons, the less energy is needed for actions to occur andhabits are formed. The more often we perform the act, the more firmly the habit.

We cannot destroy the old boutons but we can grow new ones and build new neural pathways around the old ones (like bypass heart surgery). The most important element in building new habits is not time, but energy.

Energy builds new habit pathways. It does not matter what kind of energy the body feels (emotional, physical, and sexual) but we do know positive emotional energy such as enthusiasm or visions of glory produces maximum energy. The best way to create a new pathway is to regularly repeat the action.  In time, results will show and new habits being build.


So many of the people I treat in my practice come to therapy because their relationships are suffering, and so they are suffering. It could be a teenage boy whose severe social anxiety prevents him from spending time with his friends, a woman with depression makes it hard to be the partner she wants to be, a father whose expressions of anger have put distance between him and his kids, or the college student whose alcohol-fuelled behaviour has alienated her friends. It’s hard for our relationships to thrive when we’re hurting.

The following 8 underlying devils cause relationship problems and are difficult to fix on one’s own:

  1. Greater presence.
Our presence in a relationship proves to be one very important factor since we cannot really “relate” to someone who is not there. One of the biggest complaints about partners that I hear in my practice is that s/he is not there for me. Sometimes the person means quite literally that their partner is absent—always travelling for work, for example. Just as often the problem is that even when the person is there in body, his or her mind is elsewhere. Next time when your partner talks to you about something, bring your full attention to “presence” to what is said. Practice to see the person as though for the first time and really focus on them and what they’re saying.
  • Less anxiety
When we are overwhelmed by anxiety, we cannot be our best selves. It is therefore understandable that untreated anxiety disorders take a toll on our closest relationships. For example, the need for a “safety companion/supporting partner” when a person panic or fear to drive a vehicle lead to strain as the supporting partner has to adjust his or her travel route or time schedule to accommodate the other person’s travel needs. Similarly the chronic worry in generalised anxiety to tension and irritability, causing conflict between partners not doing what you actually want but to constantly make adjustments to suit the partner’s needs. It is not always what one partner does but an underlying cause. The best way to overcome this challenge is to get professional help.
  • Improved mood.
As with anxiety, untreated depression creates intense fatigue and irritability in a relationship.  It is a struggle to be the partner we are able to be when we have no energy, no sex drive, little enthusiasm and other symptoms even for activities we would normally enjoy.   After a typical therapy course of 5-6 sessions for mild depression the average person will not only feel substantially better but will be able to function much more effectively. It is true that happier individuals make happier couples.
  • Healthier Thought Patterns.
Even if we’re not dealing with a diagnosable condition like anxiety, depression, insomnia, or a substance abuse disorder professional support can have powerful effects on relationships. Most of the successful help is based on an understanding of the connections among thoughts, feelings, and behaviors.  When our thought patterns are aligned with reality, they generally lead to positive feelings and behaviors. However, when our thoughts become distorted in some way, they start to work against us, including influencing our relationships. For example, we might notice that our partner left his clothes on the floor and think, “He expects me to pick up after him. He thinks I’m his maid.” The result might include a fight driven by resentment and defensiveness. Or we could think that our partner seems distant and tell ourselves, “She’s unhappy with me and our relationship,” leading us to withdraw in turn. Most of the therapy used would focus on one’s behaviour and encourage us first of all to notice the thoughts we are telling ourselves; oftentimes they happen so quickly and automatically that we don’t even recognize the story our mind is creating. Once we are able to identify the thoughts we can test them out to see if they’re accurate. Maybe our partner’s clothes on the floor say nothing about his view of us or expectations. And perhaps our partner’s preoccupation has nothing to do with our relationship and everything to do with her worries about her boss at work. With practice we can replace distorted and destructive thoughts with more accurate and constructive ones.  Importantly, cognitive techniques are not about fooling ourselves or pretending things are better than they are. It would be important to know if our thoughts are actually valid so we can deal with the situation directly.
  • Happier kids.
When a child is struggling with intense fears (e.g., phobias) it can lead to tremendous stress for the family. Parents inevitably feel the strain when a child is refusing to go to school, struggling socially, or having problems at bedtime. As the saying goes, “You’re only as happy as your least happy child.” Furthermore, most couples have somewhat different parenting styles with one partner more lenient and the other more of the disciplinarian parent. A child’s intense struggles will tend to amplify these differences, leading to conflict between the parents. At the end of the night when the kids are finally in bed and both parents just want to unwind, they may instead find themselves arguing about how best to help their child. Thus they may feel like their reserves are exhausted, with little left to give their child or each other. There are several illnesses and reasons such as bedwetting that could put enormous stress on a family and they all require professions intervention, usually the sooner the better. Challenging children could push an already vulnerable partner relationship over the edge.  
  • Better sleep.
As many as 23% adults suffer from bad sleep. When we do not sleep well we tend to be irritable and impatient which is definitely not a recipe for the best interactions with the people who love us. Furthermore a condition such as insomnia can turn the bed into a place of worry and stress which interferes with a relaxed night’s sleep beside our partner. Professional treatment is typically 4 to 6 sessions and is the best way to cure insomnia. The therapy would help the person to fall asleep faster and sleep more soundly.  Better sleep helps with pretty much everything.
  • Healthier relationship with alcohol.
Problematic drinking can kill a relationship. Alcohol abuse is tied to higher divorce rates, greater intimate partner violence, lower relationship satisfaction and a host of other problems.   Professional interventions can effectively change the thoughts and behaviors that maintain problems with alcohol, and replace drinking with healthier ways of coping. Interestingly, the treatment with the strongest research evidence is with both the patient and his or her partner actively involved in the treatment. For many individuals with an alcohol use disorder, lifelong abstinence is necessary. However, there is now “modest support” as a treatment program that includes the possibility of moderate alcohol consumption for some people.
  • Greater being our best significant other. 
All of us want to be the best significant other we can be. We want to be attentive, supportive, generous and more tolerant. And like anything else, the road to impoverished relationships is paved with the best of intentions.  If we’re not deliberate about living out our values, we risk leaving them in the abstract and intentions we are not able to live out. For example, we might tell ourselves, “My family matters to me more than anything,” and then live as though family is our last priority. We might idealise presence in our relationship yet attend more to our phone than to those around us. We might plan for instance, to turn off our phone during dinner and focus on our conversation. The goals and activities can be anything that’s important to us in our relationship we wish to do. It can be very beneficial to collaborate with our partner in the process by asking what they need more from us. This is not as simple to improve as it seems and skilled professional help would assist us in being our best significant other.  Our partner and family deserve to be with the best “me” possible. Try it: Can you have a conversation with your partner this week about your relationship and who you want to be for your partner? From there, make a specific plan to move toward your goals. Check how successfully you are able to implement what you have discussed and agreed upon.

Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT)

Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) is a form of evidence-based psychotherapy that emphasises the importance of ‘thinking’ in how we feel and what we do. Simply put, the cognitive – the thinking part of our experience – very much affects the behavioural – the action part of our experience. Indeed there is a causal relationship between our thinking and our feelings and behaviours. It is possible, in a practical and constructive way, to change the way we think in order to feel and behave more comfortably and acceptably, even if the situation has not changed. It is a logical and practical approach to help people with their emotional problems; as such it can be extremely empowering and can bring lasting relief after short term treatment.

Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) is a short-term form of psychotherapy directed at present-time issues and based on the idea that the way an individual thinks and feels affects the way he or she behaves.  A CBT approach can be applied to a wide range of mental health issues and conditions. The focus is on problem solving, and the goal is to change patients thought patterns in order to change their responses to difficult situations.

Cognitive Behaviour Therapy is one of the most established and researched psychological therapies for emotional, psychological and psychiatric dysfunction. For some problems, such as anxiety and depression, CBT is as effective as medication and can also enhance the effects of medication. The results of CBT are long-term, and you can keep using what you have learned in therapy to approach other problems in your life… The application of CBT varies according to the problem being addressed, but is essentially a collaborative and individualised program that helps individuals to identify unhelpful thoughts and behaviours and learn or relearn healthier skills and habits. Research shows considerable evidence that cognitive behaviour therapy provides effective relief across the lifespan for many anxieties, depressive and behavioural difficulties. Research also indicates that for some problems it is actually the treatment of choice. In practice, the cognitive behaviour therapist helps the client identify thoughts and beliefs that lead to distress, then explores and re-evaluates those thoughts, before helping the client develop more constructive and helpful emotions and behaviour.

When Is Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) Used?

CBT has been extensively investigated in rigorous clinical trials and has empirical support.CBT is structured; goal oriented, and focuses on immediate difficulties as well as long term strategies and requires active involvement by the client.CBT is flexible, individualised, and can be adapted to a wide range of individuals and a variety of settings.

What can I expect from Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT)?

In a broad sense, as its name suggests, CBT involves both ‘cognitive therapy’ and ‘behaviour therapy’. Cognitive therapy focuses on an individual’s pattern of thinking while behaviour therapy looks at associated actions. When combined skilfully, these two approaches provide a very powerful method to help overcome a wide range of emotional and behavioural problems in children, adolescents and adults. Depending on the problem, CBT may involve a mix of both therapeutic modalities, so some issues are better treated with more behavioural methods and some with more cognitive methods. One of the strengths of CBT is that it aims not just to help people overcome the symptoms that they are currently experiencing, but it also aims to teach the person new skills and strategies that they can apply to future problems. It focuses on the ‘here and now’ whilst developing an understanding of past styles of thinking and behaviour that have developed over time.

CBT examines all elements that maintain a problem, including our thoughts (cognitions), feelings, behaviour and the environment. It is a structured therapy, which involves a partnership between you and your therapist. You are fully involved in planning your treatment and the therapist will always let you know what is happening. Usually you will have a thorough assessment in the first session or two. Each session will involve discussion, explanation and practice of skills and techniques. Often you will be required to practice those techniques in between sessions.

In CBT you will first learn to identify painful and upsetting thoughts you have about current problems and to determine whether or not these thoughts are realistic. If these thoughts are deemed unrealistic, you will learn skills that help you change your thinking patterns so they are more accurate with respect to a given situation. Once your perspective is more realistic, the therapist can help you determine an appropriate course of action. You will probably get “homework” to do between sessions. That work may include exercises that will help you learn to apply the skills and solutions you come up with in therapy to the way you think and act in your day-to-day life.

How does Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) Work?

  • CBT is appropriate for children, adolescents, and adults and for individuals, families, and couples. CBT has an educational focus. CBT therapists focus on teaching self-counselling skills. When people understand what the thought processes are that are leading to their current situation, they are in a better position to effectively control them. Understanding how and why they are behaving a certain way means they can begin to effect change and progressively have an impact on their own growth and psychological health.
  CBT integrates behavioural theories and cognitive theories to conclude that the way people perceive a situation determines their reaction more than the actual reality of the situation does. When a person is distressed or discouraged, his or her view of an experience may not be realistic. Changing the way clients think and see the world can change their responses to circumstances.
  • CBT is rooted in the present, so the therapist will initially ask clients what is going on in their mind at that moment, so as to identify distressing thoughts and feelings. The therapist will then explore whether or not these thoughts and feelings are productive or even valid. The goal of CBT is to get clients actively involved in their own treatment plan so they understand that the way to improve their lives is to adjust their thinking and their approach to everyday situations.
  • While CBT is a relatively new form of therapy, early philosophers such as Socrates and Epictetus first documented principles on which it is based, centuries ago. Epictetus said “It is not the things of this world that hurt us but what we think about them.” In other words, we can have a powerful effect on our own lives by learning to understand and control our thinking patterns.

Does Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) work?

Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) has In particular demonstrated effectiveness with individuals experiencing the following problems:

  • Generalised Anxiety
  • Panic
  • Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
  • Phobias
  • Post-traumatic Stress Disorder
  • Depression
  • Eating Disorders
  • Brain Injury
  • Sexual Dysfunction
  • Couples/Marital problems
  • Social Anxiety
  • Anger & Stress Management
  • Child Anxiety Disorders and Child Depression
  • Child Behaviour Problems

Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) is particularly useful in treating the problems listed above where you request a practical method of treatment for a specific problem rather than “wanting to understand yourself better”; are able to consider psychological causes of problems; and are able to be actively involved in the therapy process and will practice skills between sessions.

CBT has been extensively investigated in rigorous clinical trials and has empirical support. Broadly, CBT has evidenced the following outcomes:

  • CBT is compatible with a range other treatments that you might receive such as medication or supportive counselling.
  • Because the individual is actively involved in their treatment they are more likely to stick with it.
  • Because CBT is flexible and individualised, it can be adapted to a wide range of individuals and a variety of settings.
  • The client can keep using what they have learned in therapy to approach other problems in life.

What can I expect at my first session?

In the first session, your cognitive behaviour therapist should:

  • Undertake a thorough assessment – you will be asked about past experiences and treatment to better understand the nature of the difficulties for which treatment is being sought.
  • Give you an opportunity to tell them anything you think is relevant to your issue.
  • Explain the basis of cognitive behaviour therapy and how it works
  • Explain what you can expect from therapy
  • Give you an idea of how long you will need to see them – the number of sessions varies with the type of difficulties being treated.
  • Discuss the treatment plan with you including goals and ways to monitor progress.

What can I expect in future sessions?

CBT is a well-planned therapy focused on outcomes. There are a range of techniques and styles in CBT, but regardless of their approach, each session your therapist should:

Give you an opportunity to tell them what has happened since you last saw them   Explain what will happen during that session   Measure and keep you informed about your progress   Give you time to practise any new skills and ask any questions during the session.  

What can I expect in between sessions?

CBT is an active therapy – sometimes described as a ‘doing therapy’ rather than a ‘talking therapy’. So, individuals will be expected to be active participants in their own therapy. This means that you can expect to be fully involved in your sessions and to develop with your therapist some tasks to practice in between sessions. Sometimes these tasks are called ‘homework’

Cognitive Behaviour Therapy and Mindfulness Strategies

The application of mindfulness concepts in Cognitive Behaviour Therapy started in 1970 when Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) was introduced by Jon Kabat-Zinn, to teach patients with chronic medical conditions how to live fuller, healthier more adaptive lives and to cope with stress, pain and illness. Mindfulness is defined as moment-to-moment non-judgemental awareness. For those of us who meditate, this definition sounds familiar, and indeed a theme that is found throughout many of the Eastern philosophies.

The practice of mindfulness begins with considering the following:

  • Anxiety, tension, and stress arise from worrying about the future. Similarly, guilt, regret, resentment, sadness, and bitterness arise from focusing on the past.
  • Mindfulness strategies combined with CBT provide a powerful therapeutic tool that enables us to reside fully in the present and to live our lives in a satisfying and productive way.
  • Cognitive Behaviour Therapy is an effective form of treatment for people with mild to moderate depression, anxiety and panic disorders, agoraphobia, eating disorders, and personality disorders.

A basic example of CBT in action

Let us assume we look at the way you act when a friend says they ‘cannot go out with you because they are busy’. You might think they actually don’t like you and that’s the real reason they always say no to you lately, which leads to the more negative thought that ‘people almost never like me’, which leads to you feeling sad and a bit tired and paranoid or anxious. The result is you don’t go out at all and spend another Friday night in feeling bad about yourself.

  • CBT would encourage you to not accept this negative thought pattern, but to look at the ways your friend really might be busy, and to then identify the people who do like you. The idea is to question all negative assumptions. You might remember that the last time you went out with your colleagues from the office everyone said they enjoyed your company. This might make you feel more energetic, so you call up a workmate and go out with them, or bravely go to an open social gathering and meet new friends entirely. So by changing your thought to one of possibilities, you changed your feelings and physical energy for the better, and this changed your actions and thus your mood.
CBT aims to help you begin to think in open-minded over negative thought loops more and more, until it becomes habitual to think with a wider and more positive perspective over always thinking the worst, or always indulging in the extremes of ‘black and white thinking’.